# Spiral Functions for Horns – The Cornu Spiral

The next spiral function in this series is the so called Cornu spiral (Link1). Other known names are Euler or Fresnel spiral or Clotoide. The most fascinating thing is that the curvature of the Cornu spiral is proportional to it’s arc length. Therefore, it is often used as base function for car lanes or railway traces. The mathematical treatment bear some challenges as the so called Fresnel integrals have to be solved. Fortunately, these integrals can be developed as a series expansion of quite simple terms. Several examples can be found in the web an there is nothing really new about this. The biggest failure for a series expansion happens if it diverges but for the range of parameters needed for a horn it has been found that the used algorithm converges properly throughout.

# Spiral Functions for Horns – The Hyperbolic Spiral

It’s been a while since I wrote an article for my blog. As far as I was able to do in time, many other horn profiles have been investigated and programmed with help of my DrBA spread sheet calculator. The blog is therefore clearly behind the current stage of development. Now it is time to reduce the gap somewhat.

When I was working on the True Expansion Tractrix horn, during the research I found something that gave me the base idea of a whole range of new horn profiles. It was a reference to the hyperbolic spiral, which was something like this: if you unroll a hyperbolic spiral on a line and place a virtual pen in the center of the spiral, you get a Tractrix curve. What? A Tractrix curve? If the Tractrix curve is known to be suitable as a horn profile, is this also the case for the hyperbolic spiral?

# DrBA Calculator and BEM Simulation

DonVK’s second article deals with the verification of the DrBA spherical wave horn calculator and BEM simulation model construction. Only the round mouth spherical wave horn was initially used for comparison to published works. Additionally, the effect of adding a roll-back section or even more a merge of the roll-back section with the inner horn wall will be discussed. As already mentioned in the original patents, the continuation of the horn profile beyond the mouth plane has positive effects and leads to more even results.